The death of Rebin Mitran

The young man in the photo who is raising up his fist is Rebin Mitran, an Iraqian Kurdish citizen who got a refugee status in Bulgaria. He died on the 1st of March in Sofia, the capital city of Bulgaria, very likely because of the low temperatures, which were minus 18 degrees during that time. He was found lying at Botevgradsko shose Blvd. in a very bad condition. He was transported to the municipal Crisis Centre for Homeless People in Zaharna Fabrika district where he died later that night.

Rebin Mitran during a Food Not Bombs action (Foto: Galina Lacheva)

Public servant in the center claims that an ambulance has been dispatched on the street where Rebin was found but did not take him to an emergency room. There are also two conflicting versions on what happened in the center: the one claims that a call has been made for an ambulance but it did not came; and the other claims that Rebin died right when the ambulance arrived. The police is still investigating the case.

One fact is that for a longer time Rebin did not have the money for picking up his identity documents from the authorities. He did not speak Bulgarian, and he was not fluent in English language. Rebin did not have an income and no home, he used to sleep at friends’ places or on the street. Rebin had health problems, e.g. he was struggling with his mental health, the autoimmune disease psoriasis and problems with his leg on which he could not take care. Only volunteers from different groups and organizations helped him from time to time.

The Bulgarian Helsinki Committee (BHC) called the situation “zero integration year(s)”, since the first National Program for the Integration of Refugees (NPIR) was adopted and applied until only the end of 2013. Since then no integration support program is existing. In the last report of the BHC one could read the following:

This resulted in extremely limited access or ability by these individuals to enjoy even the most basic social, labour and health rights, while their willingness to permanently settle in Bulgaria was reported to have decreased to a minimum.

Rebin was one of many refugees in Bulgaria who could not cope with the harsh situation there. Without social money or the lack of health care his condition got worse day by day. Rebin said he had relatives in Germany and he thought about living there. Besides that, he had a mother in Iraq, who died a few months ago.  His story shows very clearly that having a refugee status means not much in Bulgaria.

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The (unseen) violent and forced push-backs on the Bulgarian-Turkish land border

Last month (12th-14th February 2018) members of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs in the European Parliament were present in Bulgaria to collect objective first-hand information on the Bulgarian-Turkish land border. After the visit Marie-Christine Vergiat, the leader of the committee mentioned the technique of the Bulgarian border guards who are calling the Turkish collegues to avoid an ‚official push-back‘, which would mean a violation against the Non-refoulement principle:

Moreover, last week the European Parliament adopted a report on human rights in Turkey, and this police cooperation was puzzling us, especially since both sides were telling us that when they saw large groups of people on the Turkish side of the border, that the Bulgarian border guards called on the Turkish border guards. So this avoids the push-back. I keep asking myself, maybe among them there are also Turkish citizens. And they are sent back to the Turkish authorities.

In 2016 the State Agency for Refugees (SAR) registered 19,418 asylum applications in Bulgaria, for the year 2017 the published statistics only show 3,700 asylum applications. In December 2017, Turkish authorities stated that in one year they prevented 20,014 people from entering Bulgaria and Greece via the Turkish land border by using force. The additional fact that the Bulgarian Borderpolice is acting on the Turkish territory as well was already described in our report from 2014. Such action is probably also done from by Greek authorities from time to time, as very recently two Greek soldiers were arrested by Turkish border guards who were already standing on the Turkish territory. Aljazeera reported in January 2018 about push-backs, directly done by the Greek authorities.

After the visit in Bulgaria Vergiat meantioned bigger contradictions between the NGOs they met and the Bulgarian authorities. Violence used by Bulgarian authorities is an ongoing topic and was recently mentioned in the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) report “Games of Violence“. Violent Push Backs by the Bulgarian authorities were also a matter in a report, which was written by the Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) in May 2017. In July 2017 Balkan Insight published a video and an article with several statements of refugee women. One woman, who was in her sixth month of pregnancy, claimed that she lost her baby. Another one stated:

On the border between Turkey and Bulgaria, a Bulgarian policeman grabbed me by the neck and threw me on the floor. Then he hit me with a huge clump of dirt – here.

In February 2018 the Bulgarian Ministry of Interior (MoI) claimed that there is no migration influx at the Bulgarian-Turkish border. Nevertheless it was announced that there are 160 Million Euro more for Bulgaria to spend in the European Integrated Border System. Bordermonitoring Bulgaria (BMB) calls for a further investigation on the general practice of violence and the executed and additionally ‚outsourced‘ Push-Backs at the Turkish-Bulgarian border.

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Local District Prosecutor’s Office indicts 21 asylum seekers for a riot at Harmanli’s refugee camp

A Local District Prosecutor’s Office decided to indict 21 asylum seekers for “hooliganism with boldness and cynicism“ concerning the riot which happened in December 2016 in Harmanli’s refugee camp. The riot broke out after authorities closed Bulgaria’s biggest refugee camp, because of a quarantine issue. Before the closing of the camp neo-nazi and right wing protesters gathered on a regular basis in front of the camp to demonstrate against foreigners. The authorities obeyed the orders from the xenophobic and racist groups and parties and closed the camp for several days.

An injured man after being attacked by the police

After the riot broke out on the 24th of November 2017, the camp was stormed in the following night by a special unit of the gendarmerie. According to several civil rights organizations, volunteers and refugees many people in the camp were attacked and heavily injured without being involved in the riot. Krassimir Kanev, the head of the Bulgarian Helsinki Committee (BHC) stated:

Lots of completely innocent refugees were chased in their rooms, attacked and severely beaten up by the police in the course of that operation. Nor is there any prosecution of those who closed the Harmanli center on the instigation of nationalists, turning it into a prison for several days, which provoked the riot. Instead, we are going to have several rioters prosecuted for destruction of property and hooliganism

The Center for Legal Aid – Voice in Bulgaria (CLA) condemned “the absence of investigation of the police use of force against the asylumseekers“. Bordermonitoring Bulgaria (BMB) shares the concerns which were raised by the BHC and the CLA. The aim of the prosecution cannot justify the possible unlawful acts of the police, the State Agency for Refugees (SAR) and the the Health Inspectorate, which should be investigated by an independent agency.

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Violation of Article 3 during detention: ECHR rules against Bulgaria

On the 7th of December 2017, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled against Bulgaria a violation of Article 3 (inhuman and degrading treatment) concerning a family with its three children during their detainment in 2015. The press release of the ECHR reads as follows:

In August 2015 the applicants, an Iraqi couple and their three sons, who had fled Iraq, tried to pass covertly through Bulgaria in order to seek international protection in Western Europe. They were however intercepted near the Bulgarian-Serbian border on 17 August and arrested because they had not entered the country lawfully. They were then kept in immigration detention in a short-term holding facility in Vidin pending their transfer on 19 August to a bigger immigration detention facility in Sofia. On 31 August 2015 they settled in an open facility for asylum-seekers. Shortly afterwards, they left this facility and made their way to Switzerland.Relying on Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the European Convention, the applicants complained in particular about the conditions in which the three minors – then aged 16, 11 and one and a half years – had been kept in the detention facility in Vidin. Submitting a video recording, the applicants alleged in particular that the cell in which they had been held had been extremely run-down, with dirty and worn out bunk beds, mattresses and bed linen as well as litter and damp cardboard on the floor; and that, as there had been no toilet in the cell, they had had to urinate on the floor. They also complained that the authorities had failed to provide them with food and drink for the first 24 hours of their custody and that the baby bottle and milk of the youngest child had been taken away upon their arrival at the facility and only given to the mother 19 hours later.

The full decision of the ECHR can be downloaded here.

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The Black Hole of EU-Asylum

European Commission, State Agency for Refugees and Ministry of Interior keep silent regarding a leaked letter addressing the situation of Asylum Seekers in Bulgaria

In November 2017, a leaked document from 6th July circulated in the media. The document, written by Laurent Muschel Director of the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, addresses problems with the asylum policy of Bulgaria. His letter urges the State Agency for Refugees and the Ministry of Interior to act on several grave and disturbing tendencies that have been consistently criticised by stakeholders, NGOs, and experts.

Mr Muschel lists a number of problems with the current conditions for asylum seekers and refugees in Bulgaria, such as: inadequate legal assistance, health and social services for asylum seekers and refugees, including vulnerable groups and unaccompanied minors; shortage of trained staff in the centers for detention and accommodation of asylum seekers that can provide assistance to vulnerable groups and unaccompanied minors; shortage of trained interpreters and reports of inferior quality of interpretation services; inferior living conditions at the accommodation centers; consistent high rate of rejections of asylum seekers from Afghanistan, significantly higher than the EU average, which raises concerns of discrimination and inadequate or insufficient evaluation of their applications; unclear national integration strategy that lacks detail and evidence of implementation.

As of yet, the European Commission (EC), the Bulgarian State Agency for Refugees (SAR) and the Ministry of Interior (MoI) have not commented on the document. In the letter, the EC describes its support for the Bulgarian asylum and refugee policy institutions as “significant amounts of EU funding while operational support is being provided by the EU Asylum Agency (EASO)“. EASO, however, discontinued its presence in Bulgaria at the end of October 2017 without any final report on the progress in the Bulgarian asylum system and without commenting on the leaked document.

Detention Center of Busmantsi / Sofia

Throughout 2016 MoI was responsible for 10,914 people, who were placed in “pre-removal detention“ upon their arrival(*1). The reasons for detention, which lasts for days, weeks, and often months, remain unclear and somehow arbitrary. Last year, Bordermonitoring Bulgaria (BMB) learnt from several interviews with asylum seekers who have been detained in Busmantsi (a detention center located in the outskirts of Sofia) that they were not informed of the reasons for their detention or its length. BMB has also registered cases of detention of women and minors. In 2016 the Bulgarian Ombudsman, Maya Manolova, revealed that unacompanied minors have also been detained.  The Bulgarian Helsinki Commitee “identified 1,821 unaccompanied children detained in the national immigration detention centres“. The Bulgarian  Foundation for Access to Rights (FAR) found out the following in 2016:

According to the answer received as at 18 July 2016 the numbers were as follows: there were 409 detained foreign nationals in the Sofia Detention Centre of whom 337 had applied for asylum and 222 in the Lyubimets Detention Centre of whom 53 had applied for asylum. This shows that the authorities are breaking the law and fail to comply with the requirement stipulated in Article 20(2) of the Regulation on Immigrant Detention Centres to release the foreign nationals who have submitted a first application for international protection.

Additionally, since 1st January 2016, during the period of assessment of their application asylum seekers can be placed  in closed reception facilities under the jurisdiction of the State Agency for Refugees (SAR). In the year of 2016, 400 people had to stay in “Asylum Detention“ for reasons of “protection of national security or public order“. At present, the only official closed facility managed by SAR is located within the detention center in Busmantsi and has a capacity of 60 people. In October 2017, 14 out of the 17 asylum seekers detained in the facility were Afghans (*2), which corroborates reports of discriminatory treatment of this group.

BMB is alarmed by the systematic practice of arresting asylum seekers in Bulgaria. More than half of the 19,418 asylum seekers in 2016 have been arrested. The situation is especially dire for Dublin returnees, who can apply for  “just  one reopening and within a time-limit of 6 months since the procedure has been discontinued“. Many asylum seekers are especially vulnerable to arrest, they suffer grave consequences, including additional trauma from their detention in jail or their experiences during their flight. In light of this criticism and the apparent awareness of EU about the problems in the Bulgarian asylum system, Dublin deportations to Bulgaria remain even more problematic.

*1 The numbers are quoted from the report of  Center for Legal Aid – Voice in Bulgaria “Who gets detained? Increasing the transparency and accountability of Bulgaria’s detention practices of asylum seekers and migrants” from 2016.
*2 In its letter, the EU Commission was also concerned about the recognition rate of Afghan asylum seekers in BG for international protection status in 2016 (2,5%), which was a lot lower than the average of other EU countries (65%)
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Traces of migration flow at the Bulgarian-Turkish border

Yesterday, on the 20th of October 2017 the Defence Minister of Bulgaria Krassimir Karakachanov stated that ladders had been used to climb the fence at the Bulgarian-Turkish border. On the same day the minister said to BGNews that the fence is 100% finished and has to be “upgraded with relevant sensors [and] cameras“. Days before, photos were circulating in the Bulgarian media showing a large hole underneath the fence, which were leading to a bigger discussion in the Bulgarian parliament and the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) has called for the resignation of the Deputy Prime Minister Valeri Simeonov. In 2016, the Bulgarian parliament voted for using the army at the Bulgarian borders to guard it, but since then it was used only partly.

Since weeks the migration flow at the Turkish-Bulgarian border is increasing again. The UNHCR came out with a report in August 2017 which added together the numbers of interceptions at the Turkish-Greek and the Turkish-Bulgarian land borders from January-August 2017 and mentioned a quantity of 17,067 people. Only in August 2017 a number of 464 was intercepted at the Bulgarian-Turkish border by Turkish land forces. In September and October 2017 Turkish authorities reported about several attempts of crossing the Bulgarian border, which were reported broadly in the Turkish media. As opposed to this a number of 586 intercepted people was mentioned in the last report of the Bulgarian Ministry of Interior for September 2017.

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Bulgaria restricts Freedom of Movement for asylum seekers

On the 21st of September 2017 the Bulgarian government released a regulation about the restriction of the freedom of movement for registered asylum seekers in Bulgaria. The imposed limits are defined in perimeters for the asylum seekers who are registered in the refugee centers of Sofia (Voenna Rampa, Vrazhdebna, Ovcha Kupel), Harmanli, Pastrogor and Banya. Another rule was already approved one year ago to restrict the movement of asylum seekers within the open centers of the State Agency for Refugees (SAR).

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Is a new deadly route being (re-)established in the Black Sea?

The escape route from Turkey via the black sea was rarely used in 2013 and 2014 before the so called refugee crisis in Europe reached its peak. Since the recent crackdown on the Aegean Sea route in the last months, more and more people are again trying to travel from Turkey via the Black Sea to reach Bulgaria or Romania. Since the beginning of 2017, already 649 migrants were caught, while they tried to cross via Black Sea. In addition, the case of 12 migrants, locked on a merchant vessel traveling back and forth between Istanbul and Odessa came to light.

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10 people die on Bulgaria’s road because of the European border regime

On Sunday, the 4th of June a van crashed into a tree on the Trakia motorway between Plovdiv and Sofia, near the town of Pazardzhik. The result of this road crash are 9 dead people from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Syria plus the 16-year old Bulgarian teenager, who drove the car without a driving license. Until today, two migrants are still in critical condition. Additionally four other migrants have to stay in hospital. The border police  Commissioner Svetlan Kichikov stated that, the border police registered “2054 illegal attempts to cross the border“ in 2017 so far.

Every year migrants are dying in Bulgaria, because they seek for security and shelter in the EU. Many are risking their lives, which are already in danger in their home countries. The smuggling business in Bulgaria is flourishing, this year already 53 people were arrested for transporting people ‚illegally‘. Some of them are even accused of trafficking people via the airport of Sofia.

The reason (among others) why people are still being ’smuggled‘ through Bulgaria is the official closing of the, so called, humanitarian corridor (also known as „balkan-route“) in March 2016, which was forced by the governments of several European countries. Without a legal corridor and being denied safe traveling such provoked ‚accidents‘ will happen again and again.

Photo credit: Bulgarian National Television (BNT)

Update: The UNHCR came out with a report in August which added together the numbers of interceptions at the Turkish-Greek and the Turkish-Bulgarian land borders from January-August 2017 and mentioned a quantity of 17,067 people. Only in August a number of 464 was intercepted at the Bulgarian-Turkish border by Turkish land forces.

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Only 13 refugees in Bulgaria receive social assistance from the state

In March 2017, it came out to be known that only 13 refugees in Bulgaria receive social money as a social help from the Bulgarian state, because of their disabilities. Apart from that, no other refugee in Bulgaria gets cash in some form of subsistence. The 65 Leva (33EUR)  a month were already taken away in 2015, two years ago.

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